Grumman X-29


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On December 13, an X became the first jet wing and forward flight in supersonic in level flight. Junkers Ju before the first jet -wing aircraft with forward-swept. NASA test events between the two Xs , continued from to However, configurasi wings make it unstable and it can fly only with the corrections used take to 40 per second provided by the computerized flight control system. Each of the three would " vote "on their size, so that if the first vote so the malfunction can be detected.

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Grumman X | NASA

Copy Link Tweet This. Original electronic Scanned image These products were created by scanning an original printed edition. The configuration, combined with a center of gravity well aft of the aerodynamic center , made the craft inherently unstable. Stability was provided by the computerized flight control system making 40 corrections per second.

The flight control system was made up of three redundant digital computers backed up by three redundant analog computers ; any of the three could fly it on its own, but the redundancy allowed them to check for errors. Each of the three would "vote" on their measurements, so that if any one was malfunctioning it could be detected. It was estimated that a total failure of the system was as unlikely as a mechanical failure in an airplane with a conventional arrangement.

The high pitch instability of the airframe led to wide predictions of extreme maneuverability. This perception has held up in the years following the end of flight tests.

Air Force tests did not support this expectation. This was programmed into the flight control system to preserve the ability to stop the pitching rotation and keep the aircraft from departing out of control. As a result, the whole system as flown with the flight control system in the loop as well could not be characterized as having any special increased agility.

In a forward swept wing configuration, the aerodynamic lift produces a twisting force which rotates the wing leading edge upward. This results in a higher angle of attack, which increases lift, twisting the wing further. This aeroelastic divergence can quickly lead to structural failure. With conventional metallic construction, a torsionally very stiff wing would be required to resist twisting; stiffening the wing adds weight, which may make the design unfeasible.

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The X design made use of the anisotropic elastic coupling between bending and twisting of the carbon fiber composite material to address this aeroelastic effect. Rather than using a very stiff wing, which would carry a weight penalty even with the relatively light-weight composite, the X used a laminate which produced coupling between bending and torsion.

As lift increases, bending loads force the wing tips to bend upward. Torsion loads attempt to twist the wing to higher angles of attack, but the coupling resists the loads, twisting the leading edge downward reducing wing angle of attack and lift. With lift reduced, the loads are reduced and divergence is avoided.

Aircraft: Grumman X-29

The X proved reliable, and by August was flying research missions of over three hours involving multiple flights. The first X was not equipped with a spin recovery parachute, as flight tests were planned to avoid maneuvers that could result in departure from controlled flight , such as a spin. The second X was given such a parachute and was involved in high angle-of-attack testing.


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The two X aircraft flew a total of times from to From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Aviation portal.

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