Comparative Gender Stratification. Third World Women and Global Restructuring.
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Gender and Migration. The Feminization of Poverty Past and Future. Gender Movements. Gender and Unpaid Work. Gender and Family Relations. Gender and Education in Global Perspective. Gender Hierarchy and Science. Gender and Health Status. Health Care as a Gendered System. In , a new Pentagon report found that 5, troops reported cases of assault.
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Jane Addams and Cynthia Enloe have been identified as women who have contributed key ideas to military sociology. Homosexuals were not recruited but have served in the U. In , the Clinton administration began the policy of " Don't ask, Don't tell, Don't pursue ", meaning that military personnel will be neither compelled "Don't ask" nor allowed "Don't tell" nor harassed "Don't pursue" to disclose or discuss their sexual identity while serving in the military.
Recently there has been interest in how the modern militaries have constructed their knowledge. Military science in modern armed forces has taken on the aura of a hard science when it is arguably a combination of hard science, sociology "soft science" , and military history the humanities. Postmodern deconstructions of the assumptions behind modern military science can be effective in revealing how modern militaries have socially constructed their reality. In the modern relationship between the military and the state, the state relies on the military to protect it from external threats as well as violence between various internal groups.
Concurrently, the military draws so-called 'violent resources' from the state and from society. Such resources can include money, technology, raw materials, and manpower. The relationship has changed somewhat from the 16th and 17th centuries, however, where internal centers of power and specific sectors of society e. These sectors were not under the direct control of the sovereign power and could avoid feeding resources to the state. This meant that pre-modern militaries were 1 somewhat weaker than the modern version due to a lack of state-funded resources but also 2 powerful sectors of society that controlled certain privately funded resources and which could raise their own mercenary forces if needed.
As this system began to evolve, states started to exert more control over society by exploiting 'existential fears' which led to the creation of various bureaucratic methods including mass conscription, tax systems , and territorial centralization. The result is that various civil sectors began to work exclusively for the state, which in turn desired a stronger military, and which used these sectors to extract more resources and more manpower for exclusive military use.
This 'modern' military now was reliant on the state for its very existence, whereas, in pre-modern times, the military could be the tool of various autonomous sectors of society. Pure research is done from the bottom-up with no specific demand and are long term oriented. Capability research is done from the top down, most research of this type is defined for mostly military use with a specific goal in mind. Few European countries have had significant investments in research and technology.
National sensitivities and defense companies that are hesitant to share research findings has long hindered research in Europe. The EU is currently implementing its "Agenda for advanced research relating to global security" which is crucial to the future of European security. The idea in Europe is that research should be undertaken by all member states. A goal for member states and something to aid future research is a "harmonization" of military requirements.
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The American model for research is based on the old German standard, which the Americans emulated starting from the founding of the American Chemical Society in The use of research and industry to develop new and more deadly chemical and biological weapons is an intriguing aspect of the modern military.
German universities were involved in early chemical gas development for use in World War I. German universities "carefully cultivated the ideal of science as an emphatically value-free activity; they bestowed upon their wards the right and the duty to serve the interests of knowledge and to brush aside other interests with which the welfare of scientific pursuits might clash. By World War I, the chemical industry began to influence politics because of the great interdependence between industry, military and politics.
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The amount of research that is done relates to the U. This has created a strong link between military, the state, and corporate America. This has been called the " military industrial complex ", but the military has also dominated large university science departments. This concept is the military industrial academic complex, or MIA.
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July Learn how and when to remove this template message. The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this article , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new article , as appropriate. September Learn how and when to remove this template message. See also: Religious symbolism in the United States military. Main article: Women in the military. Main article: Homosexuality in the military. This article cites its sources but does not provide page references.
You can help to improve it by introducing citations that are more precise. DOI: Journal of Political and Military Sociology. Retrieved 14 July Connor, Jr. Frank Cass Publishers; Portland, c. Praeger Publishers. Life In the U. Armed Forces. Casey Santa Monica: Rand. Armies of the Young. Connecticut: Greenwood Press. Retrieved Minorities and the military.
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