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Email Address:. Size and characteristics of the domestic market : Porter's research on the competitive advantage of nations showed that such issues as the competitive nature of domestic markets and the support structures for such markets can have an impact on the international competitiveness of nations and their industries Porter, To some extent, these are input factors that might be identified in other areas of our paradigm, as well as performance outcomes.
However, we have judged that their primary impact comes in the performance of the nation so we have chosen to place them here.. Pathways to international expansion has four main elements:. National transport, telecoms and power infrastructures : The costs, investment and general quality of these items are important in terms of the speed and costs of undertaking international trade. The balance between road, rail and air transport and the distances to be covered are also important aspects of this area..
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Networks and clusters : The ability of a nation to handle efficiently or otherwise its imports and exports through specific, named locations is an important factor in international trade. The quality, extent and reliability of these factors will have a significant impact not only on costs but also on speed of response to change.. Availability of energy and other resources : The costs of various forms of energy, the ability of a nation to rely on its own energy resources and other forms of power represent important structural influences on a nation's ability to undertake all forms of production and processing.
These factors are important in the general context of a nation's economic growth but specifically have an impact on its ability to trade internationally..
International business: competing in the global marketplace
Level of foreign country export demand : In an increasingly smaller world with greater responsiveness to change, cheap and reliable communications have become more important. These matters will have an immediate impact on the ability of a nation and its individual companies to compete internationally.. Productivity can be measured in a number of ways.. It is closely linked to technology advance and innovation.. We address two important issues:. First, the institutional perspective is itself a broad and all-encompassing approach to international business analysis, as we showed in our summary of the literature on the topic.
In other words, the wide-ranging nature of this perspective must itself pose difficulties for the collection of evidence on companies and industries and for the development of any framework to capture such evidence. We argue that our paradigm is helpful in identifying and structuring the main elements. Second, we argue that it assists the analytical process of companies engaged in international business expansion by providing a structured and reasoned analysis of a complex topic.
In particular, our proposed 5P Framework offers one important insight that is not covered in market-based and resource-based alternative concepts Peng et al. Gladwin, Kennelly, and Krause suggested that reintegration is one of the most important tasks for management theorist. The structural factors identified by the 5P Framework — including government policies, political beliefs, centralized decision-making, family companies, entrepreneurial tradition, national infrastructures, etc.
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In this sense, the 5P Framework of the Institutional Perspective relates to the cause rather than the outcome of many factors that are identified in market-based and resource-based approaches. Our proposed framework for the Institutional Perspective hence represents a new way of structuring and understanding this causality. It inevitably provides new research opportunities for academics and implications for practitioners..
The authors thank Dr. Bal Chansarkar, and Dr. Yi Zhu, Middlesex University, UK, for their helpful suggestions on an earlier version of this article. They also thank Professor Arno Haslberger, Webster University Vienna, Austria, for his careful reading and suggestions for revisions to an earlier version of this paper, Dr. We thank the anonymous reviewers of the journal for their comments on an earlier version of the paper and corrections for the Spanish version of the abstract.. ISSN: X. Previous article Next article. Issue 2. Pages May - August Exploring the institutional perspective on international business expansion: Towards a more detailed conceptual framework.
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Corresponding author. This item has received. Under a Creative Commons license. Article information. It explores each of these areas in more depth with the aim of adding a more detailed structure to elements of Institutional Theory relevant to international business expansion. International business. Palabras clave:. Negocios internacionales. However, the detailed factors that are important from the Institutional Perspective in international business expansion remain unclear at the present time. Amongst other commentators, DiMaggio and Powell proposed three principle processes for institutional diffusion — coercive, normative and mimetic.
Hence, the purpose of this paper is to develop a theoretical framework which enables the in-depth comparison of organizations in different countries regarding their potential for international business expansion from an institutional perspective.
The final section is then a discussion of the implications of the paradigm for companies engaged in international business strategy. As we explain later, elements of our paradigm reflect directly these fundamental principles and also provide underpinning assumptions for our proposed structure. Our aim with this paper is to provide structure and guidance that will enable the practical application to the international business strategy especially for companies from emerging countries.
Each of these elements is then examined and justified in more depth in the next section. We thank the anonymous reviewers of the journal for their comments on an earlier version of the paper and corrections for the Spanish version of the abstract. Bruton, D. Ahlstrom, T.
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