It is best to lock down your file permissions as much as possible and to loosen those restrictions on the occasions that you need to allow write access, or to create specific folders with less restrictions for the purpose of doing things like uploading files. All files should be owned by your user account, and should be writable by you.
Any file that needs write access from WordPress should be writable by the web server, if your hosting set up requires it, that may mean those files need to be group-owned by the user account used by the web server process. The root WordPress directory: all files should be writable only by your user account, except. Theme files. If you want to use the built-in theme editor, all files need to be writable by the web server process.
If you do not want to use the built-in theme editor, all files can be writable only by your user account. Permissions may vary. If you have shell access to your server, you can change file permissions recursively with the following command:. All files are set to and all directories are set to , and writable by only the user and readable by everyone else, including the web server.
If you run multiple blogs on the same server, it is wise to consider keeping them in separate databases each managed by a different user. This is best accomplished when performing the initial WordPress installation.
This is a containment strategy: if an intruder successfully cracks one WordPress installation, this makes it that much harder to alter your other blogs. By revoking such privileges you are also improving the containment policies.
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Note: Some plugins, themes and major WordPress updates might require to make database structural changes, such as add new tables or change the schema. In such case, before installing the plugin or updating a software, you will need to temporarily allow the database user the required privileges. Thus, it is NOT recommended to revoke these privileges. If you do feel the need to do this for security reasons, then please make sure that you have a solid backup plan in place first, with regular whole database backups which you have tested are valid and that can be easily restored.
A failed database upgrade can usually be solved by restoring the database back to an old version, granting the proper permissions, and then letting WordPress try the database update again. Restoring the database will return it back to that old version and the WordPress administration screens will then detect the old version and allow you to run the necessary SQL commands on it.
Most WordPress upgrades do not change the schema, but some do.
Only major point upgrades 3. Minor upgrades 3. Nevertheless, keep a regular backup. This forces an attacker or bot to attack this second layer of protection instead of your actual admin files. Many WordPress attacks are carried out autonomously by malicious software bots. A second layer of protection can be added where scripts are generally not intended to be accessed by any user.
WordPress can overwrite anything between these tags. Omitting that line will allow the code to work, but offers less security. You can move the wp-config. This means for a site installed in the root of your webspace, you can store wp-config. Note: Some people assert that moving wp-config. Others disagree. Note that wp-config. Also, make sure that only you and the web server can read this file it generally means a or permission. If you use a server with. This is often the first tool an attacker will use if able to login, since it allows code execution.
WordPress has a constant to disable editing from Dashboard. Placing this line in wp-config. This will not prevent an attacker from uploading malicious files to your site, but might stop some attacks. First of all, make sure your plugins are always updated. Also, if you are not using a specific plugin, delete it from the system. There are many plugins and services that can act as a firewall for your website. Some of them work by modifying your.
Some firewall plugins act at the WordPress level, like WordFence and Shield , and try to filter attacks as WordPress is loading, but before it is fully processed. Besides plugins, you can also install a WAF web firewall at your web server to filter content before it is processed by WordPress. This script will display a login form. We need credentials in the database.
Create a MySQL database and a table, then insert usernames and passwords. We can confirm that the script works right. The next job is to try our hand with SQL injection to bypass the login page. Enter the following for the username field:. Leave the password field empty and hit the login button.
To load these rules, we need to tell Apache to look into these directories. Edit the modsecurity. The rules are available in directories:. Let us activate the SQL injection rules. Now open the login page we created earlier and try using the SQL injection query on the username field. Custom rules can be added to any of the configuration files or placed in modsecurity directories.
Save the file and reload Apache. The syntax for SecRule is. Sometimes it makes sense to exclude a particular directory or a domain name if it is running an application like phpMyAdmin as modsecurity and will block SQL queries. Stunnel is an open-source proxy used to create secure tunnels, allowing you to communicate with other machines over TLS.
In this guide, we will walk through the steps of installing and configuring stunnel so you can connect to a managed Redis instance over TLS with redis-cli. It also lets you rewrite URLs based on conditions.
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Seafile is an open-source, self-hosted file synchronization and sharing platform with cross-platform syncing. This is the default state. If the user isn't authorized, then we won't populate the environment, but we won't deny the user access either. You can also use this to set up the Mellon SSO paramaters transparently at the top level of your site, and then use "auth" to protect individual paths elsewhere in the site.
If he is authenticated logged in , but not authorized according to the MellonRequire and MellonCond directives, then we will return a Forbidden error. If he isn't authenticated then we will redirect him to the login page of the IdP. Since no user interaction can happen there, we always fail unauthenticated not logged in requests with a Forbidden error without redirecting to the IdP.
Default: MellonEnable "off" MellonEnable " auth " MellonDecoder is an obsolete option which is a no-op but is still accepted for backwards compatibility. If you want to have different sites running on the same host, then you will have to choose a different name for the cookie for each site.
Once "On" - both flags will be set. Values "httponly" or "secure" will respectively set only one flag. Default: the domain for the received request the Host: header if present, of the ServerName of the VirtualHost declaration, or if absent a reverse resolution on the local IP MellonCookieDomain example. The setting accepts values of "Strict" or "Lax" If not set, the SameSite attribute is not set on the cookie. The username is passed on to other apache modules and to the web page the user visits.
Note: If MellonUser refers to a multi-valued attribute, any single value from that attribute may be used. Do not rely on it selecting a specific value. This is passed to other apache modules and to the web pages the user visits.
You can list multiple MellonSetEnv directives. None set.
Second optional parameter specifies the separator, to override the default semicolon. Note that the attribute name is the name we received from the IdP. If you don't list any MellonRequire directives and any MellonCond directives, see below , then any user authenticated by the IdP will have access to this service. If you list several MellonRequire directives, then all of them will have to match. If you use multiple MellonRequire directive on the same attribute, the last overrides the previous ones.
Default: None set. MellonRequire " eduPersonAffiliation " " student " " employee " MellonCond provides the same function as MellonRequire, with extra functionality MellonRequire is retained for backward compatibility.
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Unlike with MellonRequire, multiples values are not allowed. If it evaluates to true, then the overall check succeeds. SUB Substring match, evaluates to true if value is included in attribute. REG Value to check is a regular expression.click here
NC Perform case insensitive match. Fallback to non remapped name if not found. Note that this can create tricky situations, since the OR option has effect on a following MellonRequire directive. The path is the full path from the root of the web server to the directory.
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