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The concerns raised by Aho are part of a set of issues collectively referred to as the "software problem. Advances in hardware have outraced the ability of software designers and computer programmers to develop applications that exploit the capabilities of new devices. New applications are often beset with errors, and, in the opinion of many observers, they are difficult to use.
Modifying old programs and databases to work with new hardware or new software is time consuming and expensive, exacerbating a backlog in new applications awaiting development. Applications developed to work with one operating system do not easily transfer to another. Consequently, one frequently cited testimonial to technological progress—that today's personal computers are equivalent to the mainframes of less than a decade ago—is diminished by the fact that available software takes far less than full advantage of the.
The trend toward open systems, improvements in tools to aid designers and programmers, and other developments have paid dividends. Nonetheless, software design and development have proven especially resistant to efforts to transform these activities into a structured engineering discipline, a transformation that, many believe, would contribute directly to progress in distributed network computing. To many, the process is a curious combination, of art and craft, particularly during the early stages of conceptualization and design, and of laborious writing of programming code.
Obviously, if we are going to do systems integration [on a national scale], we really have to deal with the software issues because that is, after all, what allows us to change things after they are built.
That is what it is all about. Colloquium participants examined some of the hurdles that must be overcome to improve software design and development and to manage the increasing complexity inherent in integrating information systems. Even in small-scale projects, according to Aho, systems integration poses the challenge of transforming abstractions, such as improved customer service or product quality, into concrete functions, usually embodied in software applications. Consider one of today's popular user interfaces, a graphical model of the desktop: It is an abstraction that transforms a computer screen into the most common of work environments.
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In the process of creating systems of systems, each successive layer of integration introduces new abstractions underlain by higher levels of complexity, Aho explained. It becomes increasingly difficult, he added, to assess the performance and effectiveness of systems. Consequently, integration strategies that work well in the context of a single system may be undermined by unanticipated interactions and problems that arise as the scale of internetworking grows.
Ask, does this scale up to medium-sized systems and to large-sized systems'? We are making substantial investments in [integrating systems], and we would like to be able to design systems that are not the [equivalents] of Three Mile Island. Similarly, Aho advocated developing measures for gauging the performance of systems, such as their cost-effectiveness, how easily they can incorporate new technology and accommodate new applications, and how they respond to accidents and failures. Implicit in Aho's remarks is the importance of an interdisciplinary perspective.
We have lots of examples of systems that have behaved badly under certain conditions. One method being used with increasing effectiveness in the marketplace to measure the quality of systems integration, software, and hardware is the use of Service-Level Agreements SLAs as a contract between the providers of services and the users. The SLA specifically lists measurable attributes such as "up-time," response time for user transactions, cost per user hour, and other quantitative items that can be used by both the provider and the consumer to evaluate the quality of service.
Definition of an SLA also helps in setting expectations for the system at the beginning of the development and integration process. The traditional definition of architecture—the art and science of designing and erecting buildings—continues to dominate thinking in systems integration, according to Druffel of Carnegie Mellon University. That is, systems designers tend to think in terms of configurations of hardware, just as building architects translate their concepts into specifications for components made of iron and steel.
As we think about systems architectural issues, we really need to think about the complementary software architectures. From a software perspective, I would like to know, for example, the functional view, the control structures, the expected behavior, how [system] states are stored and communicated, and what the dependencies are.
Druffel and others underscored the need for standards see below, "Software Standards" and other mechanisms that foster a shared perspective on software architecture and better communication among dispersed groups. At their current stage of development, object-oriented programming techniques, CASE tools, and "layered abstractions," such as the OSI model, represent only a partial response to the need, Druffel said, and, in some cases, they interject additional confusion. In either case, Druffel said, configuration management—essentially, organizing the construction of complex software from separate pieces—and control of software versions can be problematic.
Moreover, system components may be designed by people who differ in their views of data ownership, resulting in different models of how the overall system and its pieces should function. When the time comes to integrate these differently conceived components, difficulties often arise. The need for a shared architectural view is magnified by the goal of developing systems that can evolve with technology, a recurring colloquium theme. However, this goal can confound software development. That is, they are going to be composed of units without a complete understanding of what that end system may eventually be, which adds a little bit of complication to the issue.
The added criterion of evolvability presents software developers with the task of planning for all technological possibilities. At best, developers can only approximate future developments.
So rather than being a rigid scaffolding that greatly restricts future options for expansion, software architecture must have a high degree of flexibility. Adoption of new technology and new applications should not require razing the previous system and starting anew. Are systems designers going to be able to accommodate these improvements? Aho suggested that Japanese methods of incremental quality improvement may be applicable to systems design. Standards are an essential element of a coherent software architecture.
Unfortunately, promulgation of common conventions and widely accepted platforms for linking applications and other software elements is as prone to delays and other complications as is standards making in the telecommunications area. In fact, development of software-related standards to achieve true interoperability of applications may be a more formidable task, beset by more interdependencies and greater levels of detail.
To convey this complexity, Druffel provided a small list of topics awaiting internetworking standards: data bindings, language bindings, and bindings between standards, network management, and security. Performing an application on a distributed computing network may invoke standards in all these areas, as well as additional ones. Moreover, each area presents its own peculiar set of issues. For example, a standard that is intended to bridge the incompatibilities between different programming languages must not only serve as a translator but also resolve other disparities.
Under one language, a default may mean something entirely different from what it means in the other language.
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These kinds of issues have to be dealt with as well. Consider also all the eventualities and interdependencies that must be addressed to enable group collaboration on multimedia documents that combine, for example, voice input, graphics, digitized photographs, hand-written notes, spreadsheet tabulations, and keyboard input.
The capability to exchange heterogeneous types of information between points anywhere along a network and to combine the elements of this diverse compilation according to the whims of users will require an array of standards and common conventions. But if these standards require users to perform laborious routines and entail time-consuming steps, the benefits of collaboration will be diluted. Since networking, in general, and interoperability, in particular, are the major motivations for standards making in these and many other technical areas, distinctions between what is a computing standard and what is a communication standard have become almost artificial.
However, the landscape of national and international standards making is divided between the. See appendix below for a brief description of major standards-making bodies. Although some consolidation of activities and interests has occurred in recent years, it has not matched rates of consolidation occurring between the communications and computer industries and between the information services and applications supported by those industries.
This is in spite of the fact that the data-processing solutions have used the underlying carrier plant to establish their data networks. As we move into the broadband era, it is essential that these two merged industries cooperate in providing service to the user community. Many of the obstacles that stand in the way of advanced networking will require software solutions. For example, it has been estimated that the scale of software supporting the next generation of switching systems in the evolution of ISDN will be 10 times greater than that supporting the current generation.
No matter what the label assigned to a networking issue—communications or computing—the ultimate aim is to meet the needs of the same large set of users.
colxidemingno.tk The overriding goal of standards makers and of software developers who build on those standards, Druffel reminded, should be simplicity and ease of use—"to simplify rather than to increase the complication. The most wonderful thing about standards is that there are so many from which to choose. Worldwide, more than 7, professionals working in some subcommittees of standards-setting bodies are involved in promulgating, testing, and formalizing standards for information technology.
Within this domain of national and international standards making, much of the activity focuses on protocols for communicating within and across networks. At its last quadrennial meeting in , the International Telecommunications Union ITU , one of three major international bodies that accredit standards for telecommunications and information technology, affirmed or adopted nearly 1, standards that were documented in nearly 20, pages of text.
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